Journal:Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):16, 31, 6, E62-E73
Study evaluated relationships between post–traumatic brain injury (TBI) depression (PTD) and potential associated factors, including antidepressant use, on cognitive recovery following severe TBI. One hundred fifty-four survivors of severe TBI, recruited from a level 1 trauma center, were assessed at 6 and 12 months after injury. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PTD symptoms), the cognitive composite score from a neuropsychological assessment battery (cognitive impairment), and the Functional Independence Measure-Cognition (FIM-Cog, self-reported functional cognition). Data analysis revealed that individuals with and without PTD did not differ with respect to cognitive impairment. However, antidepressant use, regardless of PTD status, was associated with cognitive impairment. Individuals with PTD reported lower FIM-Cog scores at both time points compared with those without PTD. In a post hoc longitudinal analysis, individuals with late-onset PTD had worse cognitive impairment. These results suggest that antidepressant use impairs cognition among individuals without PTD. Also, PTD did not directly affect cognitive impairment but may affect functional cognitive limitations through self-evaluation and apathy/motivation factors.