Model System:


Reference Type:


Accession No.:



Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 96, 5, 799-808


Study investigated the unique associations of suicidal ideation (SI) and lifetime suicide attempts (SAs) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Data were collected from 2,453 adults with a history of traumatic SCI recruited from 4 SCI Model System sites and 2 additional sites as part of the Project to Improve Symptoms and Mood after SCI. The main outcome measure was any SI in the past 2 weeks (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire) and any lifetime SA. Three hundred twenty-three individuals (13.3 percent) reported SI in the past 2 weeks and 179 (7.4 percent) reported lifetime SA. After controlling for other factors, both lifetime SA and current SI were associated with study site and current level of depression. In addition, SA was associated with less education, younger age at injury, having current or past treatment of depression, and having bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. SI was associated with more years since injury and lifetime SA. Several psychological factors were associated with current SI and lifetime SAs, including lower environmental reward and less positive affect. In addition, control of one's community activities and spiritual well-being were associated with current SI. In bivariate comparisons, severity of SCI was also associated with the 47 percent of the SAs that occurred after injury. Several unique associations of SI and lifetime SA in individuals with SCI were identified, including level of environmental reward and control, spiritual well-being, and severity of SCI. These factors bear further investigation as prospective risk factors for suicidal behavior after SCI.


McCullumsmith, Cheryl B., Kalpakjian, Claire Z., Richards, J. Scott, Forchheimer, Martin, Heinemann, Allen W., Richardson, Elizabeth J., Wilson, Catherine S., Barber, Jason, Temkin, Nancy, Bombardier, Charles H., Fann, Jesse R.