Short Title:Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):14, 29, 6, E1-E9
Study estimated selected health and social outcomes for adults in the United States 5 years after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) that required acute inpatient rehabilitation, using data from the TBI Model Systems National Database. Mortality, functional independence, societal participation, subjective well-being, and global outcome were estimated among aged patients 16 years and older who received acute inpatient rehabilitation for a primary diagnosis of TBI between October 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007. Approximately 1 in 5 patients had died by the 5-year postinjury assessment. Among survivors, 12 percent were institutionalized and 50 percent had been rehospitalized at least once. Approximately one-third of patients were not independent in everyday activities. Twenty-nine percent were dissatisfied with life, with 8 percent reporting markedly depressed mood. Fifty-seven percent were moderately or severely disabled overall, with 39 percent having deteriorated from a global outcome attained 1 or 2 years postinjury. Of those employed preinjury, 55 percent were unemployed. Poorer medical, functional, and participation outcomes were associated with, but not limited to, older age. Younger age groups had poorer mental and emotional outcomes. Deterioration in global outcome was common and not age-related. The deterioration in global outcomes observed regardless of age suggests that multiple influences contribute to poorer outcomes.