Model System:


Reference Type:

Accession No.:


Journal of Neurotrauma

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 38, 11, 1526-1534


This study aims to characterize the patterns of functional change experienced between 5 and 10 years after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study included TBI Model Systems national database participants (N = 372) at six sites who experienced TBI, received inpatient rehabilitation, and were followed at 5 and 10 years post-TBI. Outcome measures included self- or proxy-reported Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM) structured interview at 5 and 10 years post-TBI and domain change indices (DCIs) at 10 years to assess subjective change over the previous 5 years. When all seven FIM and subjective DCI subscales were considered together, 69% reported improvement in at least one subscale and 41% reported decline in at least one subscale; 51% reported more domains improved than declined, and 20% reported more domains declined than improved. Age at injury, post-traumatic amnesia duration, FIM, and depression and anxiety at year 5 were associated with FIM change and DCI measures. Although most persons with moderate-severe TBI do not experience widespread change from year 5 to 10 on individual FIM subscales or perceived domain-specific subscales, the vast majority do report change in one or more domains, with more improvement than decline and more change in subjective DCI than in FIM. Clinicians and researchers should be alert to the possibility of both positive and deleterious changes many years after TBI.


Flora M Hammond, James F Malec, John D Corrigan, Gale G Whiteneck, Tessa Hart, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Thomas A Novack, Jennifer Bogner, Marie N Dahdah, C B Eagye, Mitch Sevigny, Jessica M Ketchum