Short Tilte:Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury
Journal:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):04, 85, 9, 1457-1464
Article describes the rates, risk factors, and phenomenology of depression over 3 to 5 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depressive symptoms were evaluated in 283 subjects using the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Demographic information, brain injury severity, and the subject's preinjury psychosocial history were evaluated in relation to depression. The rates of moderate to severe depression ranged from 31 percent at 1 month to 17 percent at 3 to 5 years. Less than high school education, preinjury unstable work history, and alcohol use predicted depression after injury. Depressed affect and lack of positive affect were also elevated. Findings highlight the importance of psychosocial factors as predictors of depression up to 1 year after TBI.