Journal:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):15, 96, 8, Supplement 3, S209-S221, S221.e1-S221.e6
Study investigated the influence of patient and injury characteristics on outcomes at inpatient rehabilitation discharge and 9 months after discharge for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data were obtained from 2,130 patients admitted to 10 acute inpatient rehabilitation centers as part of a comparative effectiveness study in which patient characteristics, environmental factors, and interventions were evaluated to identify factors associated with key TBI inpatient rehabilitation outcomes. Participants were divided into 5 subgroups based on rehabilitation admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) cognitive score. Rehabilitation length of stay, discharge to home, and FIM motor and cognitive scores at discharge and 9 months after discharge were analyzed. Results indicated that severity indices increased the explained variation in outcomes beyond that accounted for by patient characteristics. FIM motor scores were generally the most predictable. Higher functioning subgroups had more predictable outcomes then subgroups with lower cognitive function at admission. Age at injury, time from injury to rehabilitation admission, and functional independence at rehabilitation admission were the most consistent predictors across all outcomes and subgroups. The findings from previous studies of the relations among patient and injury characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes were largely replicated. Discharge outcomes were most strongly associated with injury severity characteristics, whereas predictors of functional independence at 9 months postdischarge included both patient and injury characteristics.