Model System:


Reference Type:


Accession No.:



Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 7, 104, 1099-1106



To investigate catastrophizing and self-efficacy for managing pain among Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics with chronic pain after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and whether coping interacts with race/ethnicity to predict participation outcomes.


Community after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation.


621 individuals with moderate to severe TBI and chronic pain, who completed follow-up as part of a national longitudinal study of TBI and also participated in a collaborative study on chronic pain.


Multicenter, cross-sectional, survey study.

Main Measures

Catastrophizing subscale from the Coping With Pain Scale; Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire; Participation Assessment With Recombined Tools-Objective.


After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, a significant interaction was observed between race/ethnicity and insurance status, such that Blacks who had public health insurance reported greater catastrophizing in response to pain compared with Whites. Race/ethnicity and self-efficacy for managing pain were unrelated. Greater catastrophizing was associated with lower participation but did not interact with race/ethnicity. Blacks reported lower participation relative to Whites, independent of catastrophizing.


Black individuals who have TBI and chronic pain, and who have public insurance, may be vulnerable to difficulties managing pain. They are more likely to cope by catastrophizing, and catastrophizing is related to worse participation outcomes. The results suggest that access to care may affect response to chronic pain after TBI.


Angelle M. Sander, Kelsey Christensen, Karina Loyo, Michael Williams, Luis Leon-Novelo, Esther Ngan, Stephanie Agtarap, Aaron M. Martin, Dawn Neumann, Flora M. Hammond, Robin Hanks, Jeanne Hoffman