Model System:


Reference Type:


Accession No.:


Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 99, 1, 9-16.e10

Publication Website:



Objectives: To determine the efficacy of a web-based transfer training module at improving transfer technique across 3 groups: web-based training, in-person training (current standard of practice), and a waitlist control group (WLCG); and secondarily, to determine subject factors that can be used to predict improvements in transfer ability after training.

Design: Randomized controlled trials.

Setting: Summer and winter sporting events for disabled veterans.

Participants: A convenience sample (N=71) of manual and power wheelchair users who could transfer independently.

Interventions: An individualized, in-person transfer training session or a web-based transfer training module. The WLCG received the web training at their follow-up visit.

Main outcome measure: Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI) part 1 score was used to assess transfers at baseline, skill acquisition immediately posttraining, and skill retention after a 1- to 2-day follow-up period.

Results: The in-person and web-based training groups improved their median (interquartile range) TAI scores from 7.98 (7.18-8.46) to 9.13 (8.57-9.58; P<.01), and from 7.14 (6.15-7.86) to 9.23 (8.46-9.82; P<.01), respectively, compared with the WLCG that had a median score of 7.69 for both assessments (baseline, 6.15-8.46; follow-up control, 5.83-8.46). Participants retained improvements at follow-up (P>.05). A lower initial TAI score was found to be the only significant predictor of a larger percent change in TAI score after receiving training.

Conclusions: Transfer training can improve technique with changes retained within a short follow-up window, even among experienced wheelchair users. Web-based transfer training demonstrated comparable improvements to in-person training. With almost half of the United States population consulting online resources before a health care professional, web-based training may be an effective method to increase knowledge translation.


Worobey LA, Rigot S, Hogaboom NS, Venus C, Boninger ML