Short Tilte:Challenges to clinical deployment of upper limb neuroprostheses
Journal:Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):96, 33, 2, 111-122
This paper describes the use of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to provide upper limb function to individuals with tetraplegia, focusing on trials by three clinical research groups: (1) a hybrid noninvasive push-button surface electrode system built into a cosmetic forearm splint (Israel); (2) a respiration-controlled 30-channel percutaneous system (Japan), and (3) an 8-channel implantable system under the control of voluntary muscles (Case Western Reserve University). Barriers and challenges to the implementation of such systems are discussed (e.g., complexity of FNS systems and the unique characteristics of the individuals for whom they are designed).