Model System:


Reference Type:

Journal article

Accession No.:



Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 89, 4, 829-833

Publication Website:


Study described pain intensity and interference at baseline and 1 year post injury in burn, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors compared to each other and with the general population (GP). It also evaluated the feasibility and utility of custom Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain interference short forms in trauma populations. A pain intensity numerical rating scale and custom PROMIS pain interference short forms were administered at baseline and/or 1 year post injury from participants at three Model System projects (burn, TBI, and SCI). Scores were compared across injury groups and pain intensity levels, and to the GP. Reliability and floor and ceiling effects of the custom PROMIS pain measures were calculated. Participants (161 burn, 232 TBI, 134 SCI) responded to the pain intensity and/or pain interference measures at baseline, 1 year, or both. At baseline, pain interference and intensity were both significantly higher in all three groups than in the GP. At 1 year, average pain intensity in SCI and burn participants was higher than the GP, but only SCI participants reported higher pain interference than the GP. Half of all participants reported clinically significant pain interference (55 or higher) at baseline and one third at 1 year. Reliability of the custom pain interference measure was excellent (>0.9) between T-scores of 48 and 79. The custom pain interference short forms functioned well and demonstrated the utility of the custom PROMIS pain interference short forms in traumatic injury. Results indicate that, for many people with burn, TBI, and SCI, pain remains an ongoing concern long after the acute injury phase is over. This suggests a need to continue to assess pain months or years after injury to provide better pain management for those with traumatic injuries.


Dagmar Amtmann, Alyssa M Bamer, Kara McMullen, Nicole S Gibran, Jeanne M Hoffman, Charles H Bombardier, Gretchen J Carrougher

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