Model System:


Reference Type:

Journal article

Accession No.:



Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 103, 12, 2325-2337

Publication Website:


Study identified demographic, pre-injury, injury-related, and rehabilitation predictors of loss to follow-up (LTFU) in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) National Database at 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after injury. A total of 17,956 TBIMS participants with interview status data available were included if eligible for 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 15-, or 20-year follow-ups between October 31, 1989, and September 30, 2020. Information relevant to participants' history, injury characteristics, rehabilitation stay, and patterns of follow-up across 20 years were considered using a series of logistic regression models. Overall, LTFU rates were low (consistently <20 percent). The most robust predictors of LTFU across models were missed earlier follow-ups and demographic factors including Hispanic ethnicity, lower education, and lack of private health insurance. Repeated attempts to reach participants after a previously missed assessment are beneficial because many participants that missed 1 or more follow-ups were later recovered.


Vos, Leia|Ngan, Esther|Novelo, Luis L.|Williams, Michael W.|Hammond, Flora M.|Walker, William C.|Clark, Allison N.|Ochoa Lopez, Andrea P.|Juengst, Shannon B.|Sherer, Mark|

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