Model System:


Reference Type:

Journal article

Accession No.:




Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 52, , 59-69

Publication Website:


Study examined the impact of emotional awareness, emotional functioning, and empathy among people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the burden experienced by care partners of individuals with TBI. Data were collected at four TBI Model Systems centers from 90 dyads (participants with TBI and their care partner) at 1-year post-injury. Participants with TBI completed the Difficulty with Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS) Awareness, Clarity, Goals, Impulse, Nonacceptance, and Strategies subscales; PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version; NIH Toolbox Anger-Affect, Hostility, and Aggression Subdomains; Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathic concern and perspective taking subscales). Care partners completed the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) and provided demographic information. Care partners were predominately female, and most were either a spouse/partner or parent. In an unadjusted model that included assessments of emotional awareness, emotional functioning, and empathy of the participant with TBI, the DERS-Awareness and NIH-Hostility subscales accounted for a significant amount of the variance associated with care partner burden. These findings persisted after adjusting for care partner age, relationship, and education, and the functional status of the participant with TBI. These findings suggest that high levels of hostility and low emotional self-awareness can significantly affect the burden felt by TBI care partners.


Klyce, Daniel W.|Merced, Kritzianel|Erickson, Alexander|Neumann, Dawn M.|Hammond, Flora M.|Sander, Angelle M.|Bogner, Jennifer A.|Bushnik, Tamara|Chung, Joyce S.|Finn, Jacob A.

Participating Centers: