Model System:


Reference Type:

Journal article

Accession No.:



Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 34, 5, E24-E35

Publication Website:


Study examined the associations of specific physical and neuropsychiatric medical conditions with the trajectory of motor and cognitive functioning and life satisfaction over the first 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 404 individuals with TBI who were enrolled in the TBI Model System longitudinal study and had data collected during at least 2 of the 3 follow-up interviews at 1, 2, and 5 years postinjury. Outcome measures included the Functional Independence Measure Motor and Cognitive subscales, the Satisfaction With Life Scales, and the Medical and Mental Health Comorbidities Interview. Individual growth curve analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, and anxiety negatively affected the trajectory of motor functioning over time. Diabetes, cancers, chronic bronchitis, anxiety, and depression negatively impacted cognitive functioning. Numerous neuropsychiatric conditions (sleep disorder, alcoholism, drug addiction, anxiety, panic attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder), as well as hypertension, liver disease, and cancers, diminished life satisfaction. Other medical conditions had a negative effect on functioning and satisfaction at specific follow-up periods. Natural recovery after TBI may include delayed onset of functional decline or early recovery, followed by progressive deterioration, and is negatively affected by medical comorbidities. Results contribute to the growing evidence that TBI is most appropriately treated as a chronic medical condition complicated by a variety of comorbid conditions.


Malec, James F. |Ketchum, Jessica M.|Hammond, Flora M. |Corrigan, John D. |Dams-Oâ??Connor, Kristen|Hart, Tessa |Novack, Thomas |Dahdah, Marie |Whiteneck, Gale G. |Bogner, Jennifer|

Participating Centers: