Lifetime history of traumatic brain injury is associated with increased loneliness in adults: A US nationally representative study
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):
, 35, 5, 553-563
Study examined the relationship between history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and loneliness and identified mediators of that relationship. Data from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed for a nationally representative sample of 724 adults over age 50 years. Loneliness was evaluated using the 11-item Revised University of California Los Angeles (R-UCLA) Loneliness Scale. Lifetime history of TBI evaluated retrospectively using the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method. All analyses included the following covariates: age, sex, race, and education; and mediators: depressive symptoms, number of comorbidities, chronic pain, difficulty with activities of daily living, and social network index. History of TBI was associated with a 1.28-point increase in R-UCLA Loneliness Scale scores after covariate adjustment. Individuals with more recent injuries (within 10 years) and multiple lifetime TBIs reported the highest loneliness scores. In the structural equation model, depressive symptoms partially mediated the relationship between TBI and loneliness. All models were adjusted for United States (US) population sampling weights. This study showed that history of TBI was associated with greater loneliness compared with individuals without TBI in a representative sample of US adults. Managing depressive symptoms and medical consequences of TBI may be a target to ameliorate reporting of loneliness in this population.
Kumar, Raj G. |Ornstein, Katherine A. |Bollens-Lund, Evan |Watson, Eric M. |Ankuda, Claire K. |Kelley, Amy S. |Dams-O'Connor, Kristen|