Model System:


Reference Type:

Journal article

Accession No.:



Brain Injury

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 34, 2, 187-194

Publication Website:


Study identified the factors associated with the remission of insomnia by examining a sample of individuals who had insomnia within the first two years after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assessing their status at a secondary time point. Data were collected from individuals enrolled in TBI Model Systems National Database at five participating centers. Forty participants completed a number of self-report scales measuring: sleep/wake characteristics (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Sleep Hygiene Index); fatigue and depression (Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, Patient Health Questionnaire-9); and community participation (Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools- Objective). Nineteen subjects were followed-up at 1 year and 2 years post injury while 21 subjects were followed-up at 2 years and 5 years post injury. Remission of insomnia was noted in 60 percent of the sample. Those with persistent insomnia had significantly higher levels of fatigue and depression at their final follow-up and poorer sleep hygiene across both follow-up time-points. A trend toward reduced community participation among those with persistent insomnia was also found. This study found that individuals with persistent post-TBI insomnia had poorer psychosocial outcomes. The chronicity of post-TBI insomnia may be associated with sleep-related behaviors that serve as perpetuating factors.


Lequerica, Anthony H. |Weber, Erica |Dijkers, Marcel P. |Dams-O’Connor, Kristen |Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A. |Bell, Kathleen R. |Bushnik, Tamara|Goldin, Yelena |Hammond, Flora M.|

Participating Centers: