Model System:


Reference Type:

Journal article

Accession No.:



Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):

, 104, 4, 619-630

Publication Website:


Study examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in people with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) assessed before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were collected through the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) network from 7009 adults eligible for follow-up and completed mental health questionnaires pre-pandemic (January 1, 2017, to February 29, 2020) or during pandemic (April 1, 2022, to June 30, 2021). The primary outcomes were depression and anxiety, measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire, respectively, at each assessment (postinjury year 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30). Separate linear and logistic regressions were constructed with demographic, psychosocial, injury-related, and functional characteristics, along with a binary indicator of COVID-19 pandemic period (pre-pandemic vs during pandemic), as predictors of mental health outcomes. No meaningful differences in depression, anxiety, or suicidal ideation were observed before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Correlations between predictors and mental health outcomes were similar before and during the pandemic. The results may reflect generalized resilience and are consistent with the most recent findings from the general population that indicate only small, transient increases in psychological distress associated with the pandemic.


Katta-Charles, Sheryl |Adams, Leah M.|Chiaravalloti, Nancy D.|Hammond, Flora M.|Perrin, Paul B.|Rabinowitz, Amanda R.|Venkatesan, Umesh M.|Weintraub, Alan H.|Bombardier, Charles H.

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