Journal:Journal of Injury and Violence Research
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):11, 3, 2, 98-110
Article discusses the epidemiology and risk factors, mechanisms of injury, clinical assessment, and methods of prevention associated with pediatric burn injuries. Burns are the third most frequent cause of childhood injury resulting in death, behind motor vehicle accidents and drowning. Burn injuries account for the greatest length of stay of all hospital admissions for injuries and costs associated with care are substantial. The majority of burn injuries in children are scald injuries resulting from hot liquids, occurring most commonly in children aged 0 to 4 years. Other types of burns include electrical, chemical, and intentional injury. Mechanisms of injury are often unique to children and involve exploratory behavior without the requisite comprehension of the dangers in their environment. Assessment of the burned child includes airway, breathing, and circulation stabilization, followed by assessment of the extent of the burn and head to toe examination. The standard rule of 9s for estimating total body surface area (TBSA) of the burn is inaccurate for the pediatric population and modifications include utilizing the Lund and Browder chart, or the child’s palm to represent 1 percent TBSA. Further monitoring may include cardiac assessment, indwelling catheter insertion, and evaluation of inhalation injury with or without intubation depending on the context of the injury. Risk factors and features of intentional injury should be known and sought and vital clues can be found in the history, physical examination, and common patterns of presentation.